Immunology PowerPoint (google Docs)

This is Immunology, presented by OP
external image funny-gif-white-blood-cell-chasing-bacteria.gif

The Immune System


Table of Contents------------------------------------->

Vocabulary, learn this.

  • anaphylactic shock - an acute, whole-body, life-threatening, allergic response
  • apoptosis - changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes programmed cell death, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die
  • B cell - a type of lymphocyte that develops to maturity in the bone marrow. after encountering an antigen, B cells differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells, the effector cells of humoral immunity
  • CD4 - a surface protein, present on most helper T cells, that binds to class 2 MHC molecules on antigen-presenting cells, enhancing the interaction between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell
  • CD8 - a surface protein, present on most cytotoxic cells, that binds to class 1 MHC molecules on target cells, enhancing the interaction between the T cell and the target cell
  • complement system - a group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagocytosis, directly lyse (burst) pathogens. The complement system is activated in a cascade initiated by surface antigens on microorganisms or by antigen-antibody complexes.
  • cytokine - any of a group of proteins secreted by a number of cell types, including Macrophages and helper T-cells, that regulate the function of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system
  • dendritic cell - an antigen-presenting cell, located mainly in lymphatic tissues and skin, that is particularly efficient in presenting antigen to naive helper T cells, thereby initiating a primary immune response
  • graft versus host reaction - an attack against a patient's body cells by lymphocytes received in a bone ,arrow transplant
  • immunization - the process of generating a state of immunity by artificial means. in active immunization, a nonpathogenic version of a normally pathogenic microbe is administered, inducing B and T cell responses and immunological memory. In passive immunization, antibodies specific to a particular microbe is administered, conferring immediate but temporary protection. Also called Vaccination
  • immunoglobulin - any of the class of proteins that function as antibodies. Divided into 5 major classes that differ in their distribution and antigen disposal activities
  • lysozyme - a membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
  • mast cell - a vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response
  • primary immune response - the initial acquired immune response to an antigen, which appears after a lag of about 10 - 17 days
  • secondary immune response - the acquired immune response elicited on second or subsequent exposures to a particular antigen. the secondary immune response is more rapid, of greater magnitude, and of longer duration than the primary immune response
  • thymus - a small organ in the thoracic cavity of vertebrates where maturation of T cells is completed

Khan Academy videos

  1. Role of Phagocytes in Innate or Nonspecific Immunity:
  2. Types of immune responses: Innate and Adaptive. Humoral vs. Cell-Mediated:
  3. B Lymphocytes (B cells):
  4. Professional Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) and MHC II complexes:
  5. Helper T Cells:
  6. Cytotoxic T-cells:
  7. Review of B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells:
  8. Inflammatory Response:

Phagocytosis: here we see a white blood cell OMNOMNOMing a yeast cell
The Human Lymphatic System

AP Standards

  1. Explain what is meant by nonspecific defense and list the nonspecific lines of defense in the vertebrate body.
  2. Distinguish between:
    1. innate and acquired immunity
    2. humoral and cell mediated response
  3. Explain how the physical barrier of skin is reinforced by chemical defenses.
  4. Describe the inflammation response, including how it is triggered.
  5. Describe the factors that influence phagocytosis during the inflammation response.
  6. Explain how the action of natural killer cells differs from the action of phagocytes.
  7. Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
  8. Distinguish between antigen and epitope.
  9. Explain how B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes recognize specific antigens.
  10. Explain how the particular structure of a lymphocyte’s antigen binding site forms during development.
  11. Explain the role of recombinase in generating the staggering variability of lymphocytes.
  12. Explain why the antigen receptors of lymphocytes are tested for self-reactivity during development.
  13. Predict the consequences that would occur if such testing did not take place.
  14. Describe the mechanism of clonal selection.
  15. Distinguish between effector cells and memory cells.
  16. Distinguish between primary and secondary immune responses.
  17. Describe the variation found in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and its role in the rejection of tissue transplants. Explain the adaptive advantage of this variation.
  18. Compare the structures and functions of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells.
  19. Distinguish between humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity.
  20. Describe the roles of helper T lymphocytes in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
  21. Explain how cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells defend against tumors.
  22. Explain how antibodies interact with antigens.
  23. Diagram and label the structure of an antibody and explain how this structure allows antibodies to
    1. recognize and bind to antigens, and
    2. assist in the destruction and elimination of antigens.
  24. Distinguish between the variable (V) and constant (C) regions of an antibody molecule.
  25. Describe the production and uses of monoclonal antibodies.
  26. Explain how the immune response to Rh factor differs from the response to A and B blood antigens.
  27. Describe the potential problem of Rh incompatibility between a mother and her unborn fetus and explain what precautionary measures may be taken.
  28. Describe an allergic reaction, including the roles of IgE, mast cells, and histamine.
  29. List three autoimmune disorders and describe possible mechanisms of autoimmunity.
  30. Describe the infectious agent that causes AIDS and explain how it enters a susceptible cell.
  31. Explain how HIV is transmitted and describe its incidence throughout the world. Note strategies that can reduce a person’s risk of infection.